Disorders

1) Dementia:

Dementia refers to a disease process marked by progressive cognitive impairment in clear consciousness. 

 

Symptoms:

  • Decline in both memory and thinking sufficient to impair daily living

  • Poor judgement skills

  • Language impairment like word-finding difficulties or mispronouncing words

  • Behavioral disturbances include agitation, aggressive behavior, uncooperative behavior, and wandering

  • Mood Changes

  • Sleep Disturbance

 

Management:

  • Behavioral Management

  • Cognitive skills training exercises, focused on maintaining specific cognitive skills, and reality orientation

  • Stimulation-oriented therapies including recreational therapy, art therapies etc

  • Caregiver support

2) Addiction

A cluster of physiological, behavioural, and cognitive phenomena in which the use of a substance takes on a much higher priority for a given individual than other behaviours

 

Symptoms:

  • A strong desire or compulsion to take the substance

  • Difficulties in controlling substance-taking behaviour 

  • Increased dose of the substance 

  • Reduced interest in other pleasurable activities 

  • Drug- related cognitive impairment 

  • Physical signs after discontinuing 

  • Sleep disturbances

 

Management:

  • Motivational interviewing

  • Individual and family counseling 

  • Self-Help Groups

  • Rehabilitation

3) Schizophrenia

A group of psychotic disorders characterized by major disturbances in thought, emotion, and
behavior; disordered thinking in which ideas are not logically related; faulty perception and attention; bizarre disturbances in motor activity; flat or inappropriate emotions; reduced tolerance for stress in interpersonal relations and withdrawal from people and reality, often
into a fantasy life 

 

Symptoms:

  • Delusions: Beliefs contrary to reality, firmly held in spite of evidence to the contrary 

  • Hallucinations: Perceptions in any sensory modality without relevant and adequate external stimuli

  • Negative symptoms: Behavioral deficits which include flat affect, loss of interest and pleasure etc

  • impairments in social relationships

  • emotional responses are out of context

 

Management:

  • antipsychotic medication

  • Cognitive Behavior Therapy

  • Social Skills Training

  • Weekly supportive group or individual therapy

  • Residential treatment homes or “halfway houses”

  • vocational rehabilitation

  • Family educational sessions

  • Relaxation/stress reduction

4) Depression

The individual usually suffers from depressed mood, loss of interest and enjoyment, and reduced energy leading to increased fatigability and reduced activity. 

 

Symptoms:

  • Reduced concentration and attention

  • Reduced self-esteem and self-confidence

  • Ideas of guilt and unworthiness (even in a mild type of episode)

  • Negative views of the future

  • Ideas or acts of self-harm or suicide

  • Disturbed sleep

  • Diminished appetite.

 

Management:

  • Behavior therapy

  • Cognitive behavior therapy

  • Interpersonal therapy

  • Family-focused treatment (FFT) aims to educate the family about the illness, enhance family communication, and develop problem solving skills

5) Mania

Intense elation or irritability, accompanied by symptoms such as excessive talkativeness, rapid thoughts, distractibility, grandiose plans, heightened activity, and insensitivity to the negative consequences of actions

 

Symptoms:

  • Elevation of mood (for at least several days on end)

  • Increased energy and activity

  • Increased sociability, talkativeness & over familiarity.

  • Increased sexual energy

  • Decreased need for sleep

 

Management:

  • Cognitive behavioral therapy

  • Interpersonal & social rhythm therapy

  • Family focused therapy

  • Stress management techniques 

  • Problem-solving techniques

6) Generalised Anxiety Disorder

Disorder characterized by anxiety so chronic, persistent, and pervasive that it seems free-floating. 

 

Symptoms:

  • Jittery or feeling dizzy

  • Distractible

  • Increased Worry 

  • Pounding heart or fast pulse or chest pain

  • Nausea or abdominal distress

  • Shallow breathing

  • Trembling or sweating or flushing

  • Muscle aches 

 

Management:

  • Relaxation exercise

  • Cognitive behavior therapy

7) Phobias

Phobia as a disruptive fear of a particular object or situation that is out of proportion to any danger posed. The person recognizes that the fear is excessive but still goes to great lengths to avoid the feared object or situation.

 

Symptoms:

  • Marked, persistent fear triggered by exposure 

  •  Exposure to the trigger leads to intense anxiety 

  • The person recognizes the fear is unrealistic

  • Trigger situations are avoided or else endured with intense anxiety

 

Management:

  • Relaxation exercise

  • Systematic desensitization

  • Modeling

  • Flooding

  • In-vitro exposure therapy

  • Cognitive behavior therapy

8) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by persistent and uncontrollable
thoughts or urges (obsessions) and by the need to repeat certain acts again and again (compulsions).

 

Symptoms:

  • Excessive anxiety and worry

  • Intrusive thoughts like hurting someone, something bad will happen etc

  • Repetitive behaviors such as frequent cleaning, washing , checking etc

  • Hard to control or urge to carry out.

  • Difficulty concentrating or mind going blank

  • Increased irritability

  • Sleep disturbance

  • understands the compulsions are excessive and that they will not prevent dreaded events

 

Management:

  • Exposure & Response Prevention

  • Cognitive behavior therapy

  • Systematic desensitization

  • Behavioral management

  • Family or marital counseling

9) Somatoform Disorder 

A group of disorders in which people experience significant physical symptoms for which there is no apparent organic cause. In somatoform disorders, psychological problems take a physical form (soma means “body”)—that is, the person experiences bodily symptoms that have no known physical cause. These disorders are not under voluntary control, nor are they intentionally produced by the person.

 

Symptoms:

  • Multiple physical symptoms

  • Refusal to accept that there is no physical problem

  • Frequent reassurance of several doctors

  • Persistent belief in the presence of serious physical illness

  • Preoccupation with fears

 

Management:

  • Behavioral management

  • Cognitive strategies

  • Assertion training

  • Social skills training

  • Relaxation exercise

  • Imagery sessions

10) Eating disorders

Disorders of eating behaviors are associated thoughts, attitudes and emotions, and their resulting physiological impairments. In Anorexia nervosa, a person refuses to maintain normal weight, has an intense fear of becoming obese, and feels fat even when emaciated. Bulimia nervosa characterized by episodic, uncontrollable eating binges followed by purging either
by vomiting or by taking laxatives.

 

Symptoms:

  • Refusal to maintain normal body weight.

  • Intense fear of gaining weight and being fat

  • Distorted body image or sense of their body shape

  • Loss of menstrual period

  • Frequent binge eating 

  • Recurrent compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain

 

Management:

  • Behavior management

  • Cognitive behavior therapy

  • Family therapy

  • Psycho educational approaches

  • Risk factor approach as preventive measure

  • Self help groups

11) Sleep Disorders

A group of syndromes characterized by disturbance in the patient's amount of sleep, quality or timing of sleep, or in behaviours or physiological conditions associated with sleep.

 

Symptoms:

  • Difficulty in falling asleep or maintaining sleep

  • Poor or unsatisfactory quality 

  • Preoccupation with sleeplessness

  • Sleep walking

  • Repeated sudden awakenings with intense fear

  • Distress due to nightmares

 

Management:

  • Sleep hygiene

  • Stimulus control therapy

  • Sleep restriction therapy 

  • Relaxation therapy

  • Biofeedback

  • Paradoxical intention

  • Light therapy

  • Cognitive behavior therapy

12) Sexual Dysfunction

Sexual dysfunction covers the various ways in which an individual is unable to participate in a sexual relationship as he or she would wish. There may be lack of interest, lack of enjoyment, failure of the physiological responses necessary for effective sexual interaction (e.g. erection), or inability to control or experience orgasm

 

Symptoms:

  • Unable to participate in sexual relationship

  • Lack or loss of sexual desire or interest

  • Lack of enjoyment 

  • Failure of genital response

  • Premature ejaculation

  • Pain or discomfort during sexual response

  • Excessive sexual drive

 

Management:

  • Dual sex therapy

  • Behavioral exercises

  • Sensate focus exercise

  • Integrated sex therapy

  • Behavior therapy

13) Adjustment Disorder

Stress-related disorder that involves emotional and behavioral symptoms (depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and/or antisocial behaviors) usually interfering with social functioning and
performance, that arise within 3 months of the onset of a stressor 

 

Symptoms:

  • Anxiety or worry

  • Feelings of inability to cope

  • Feeling sad or downhearted 

  • Increased irritability or anger

  • Helplessness

  • Sleep disturbance

 

Management:

  • Cognitive behavior therapy

  • Psychodynamic therapy

  • Problem solving skills

14) Personality Disorder

A heterogeneous group of disorders defined by long-standing, pervasive, and inflexible patterns of behavior and inner experience that deviate from the expectations of a person’s culture. These problematic patterns are manifested in at least two of the following areas: cognition, emotions, relationships, and impulse control.

 

Symptoms:

  • The pattern is long standing, and not limited to episodes 

  • Detachment from social relationships and restricted range of emotional expression

  • Excessive emotionality and attention seeking

  • Need for admiration and lack of empathy

  • Instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affect, as well as marked impulsivity

  • Excessive need to be taken care of, submissive behavior, and fears of separation

  • Preoccupation with order, perfection, and control

  • Social inhibition

  • Feelings of inadequacy

  • Hypersensitivity to negative evaluation

 

Management:

  • Dialectical Behavior Therapy

  • Psychodynamic therapy

  • Cognitive behavior therapy

  • Behavioral management

  • Object relations therapy

  • Schema-focused therapy 

15) Autism

Pervasive developmental disorder in which the child’s world is one of profound aloneness: speech is often absent, and the child has an obsessive need for everything to remain the same

 

Symptoms:

  • Poor language development before 3 yrs of age

  • Poor quality of eye contact

  • Difficulty in social interaction or communication 

  • Inability to express or understands

  • Lack of ability to play with other children

  • Repetitive activity or behavior or speech

  • Sensitive to sensory inputs (closing ears when there is sound, keeping everything in mouth etc)

  • Increased aggressive behavior or self injury

 

Management:

  • Communication skills training

  • Applied Behavior Analysis

  • Social skills training 

  • Behavior therapy

  • Family therapy

  • Vocational training 

16) Intellectual Disability

A condition of arrested or incomplete development of the mind, which is especially characterized by impairment of skills manifested during the developmental period, which contribute to the overall level of intelligence, i.e.cognitive, language, motor, and social abilities

 

Symptoms:

  • Poor ability to understand and comprehend

  • Delayed development

  • Poor academic skills

  • Deficit in adaptive skills or behavior (self dressing, eating etc)

  • Poor interpersonal skills

 

Management:

  • Behavioral management

  • Cognitive skills training

  • Early intervention programs

  • Social skills training

  • Vocational skills training

  • Group homes

17) Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder(ADHD)

A disorder in children marked by difficulties in focusing adaptively on the task at hand, inappropriate fidgeting and antisocial behavior, and excessive non-goal-directed behavior.

 

Symptoms:

  • Poor ability to pay attention or concentrate

  • Fidgeting or failure to remain seated

  • Excessive talkativeness

  • Excessive restless behavior

  • Reckless in making decisions 

  • Difficulty getting along with peers and establishing friendships

 

Management:

  • Parent Management Training

  • Social skills training 

  • Attention enhancement training

  • Behavior therapy

18) Conduct Disorders

Pattern of extreme disobedience in youngsters, including theft, vandalism, lying, and early
drug use; may be precursor of antisocial personality disorder 

 

Symptoms:

  • Repeated lying 

  • Frequent stealing behavior

  • Pleasure in setting fire or destructing behavior

  • Running away from home

  • Persistent disobedience

  • Fighting or bullying others

  • Cruel to people or animals

 

Management:

  • Interpersonal therapy

  • Family intervention

  • Parent Management Training

  • Multisystemic treatment

  • Cognitive behavior therapy

19) Learning Disabilities

General term for learning disorders, communication disorders, and motor skills disorder.
A set of developmental disorders encompassing dyslexia, mathematics disorder, and disorder of written expression; characterized by failure to develop in a specific academic area to the degree
expected by the child’s intellectual level.

 

Symptoms:

  • Difficulty in reading or pronouncing words

  • Writing reversal forms of letters or numbers

  • Poor ability in spelling words

  • Difficulty in motor coordination skills 

  • Slow in reading or writing

  • Inability to recall academic informations

  • Difficulty in understanding or using basic math concepts such as addition, subtraction etc 

  • Poor ability to calculate 

  • Illegible handwriting 

 

Management:

  • Early intervention

  • Phonetic awareness

  • Remedial teaching methods

  •  Behavior management

  • Play or activity based teaching

  • Social skills training

  • Parent management training 

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